Neutrophil perversion in demyelinating autoimmune diseases: Mechanisms to medicine.

TitleNeutrophil perversion in demyelinating autoimmune diseases: Mechanisms to medicine.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuteursCasserly, CS, Nantes, JC, Hawkins, RFWhittake, Vallières, L
JournalAutoimmun Rev
Volume16
Issue3
Pagination294-307
Date Published2017 Mar
ISSN1873-0183
KeywordsAutoimmune Diseases, Demyelinating Diseases, Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental, Humans, Neutrophils
Abstract

Neutrophils are essential to a healthy life, yet pose a threat if improperly controlled. Neutrophil perversion is well documented in a variety of inflammatory disorders (e.g. arthritis, lupus, psoriasis), but is only beginning to be demystified in autoimmune demyelination, the most common cause of neurological disability in young adults. Using the animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), several molecules that help neutrophils invade the central nervous system (CNS) have been identified. Mechanisms by which neutrophils may contribute to demyelination have also been proposed (e.g. secretion of endothelial/leukocytic modulators, antigen presentation to T cells, myelin degradation and phagocytosis). In human, neutrophils are seen in the CNS of people with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and other severe variants of autoimmune demyelinating diseases. At the time of autopsy for multiple sclerosis (MS) - often many years after its onset - neutrophils appear to have escaped the scene of the crime. However, new clues implicate neutrophils in MS relapses and progression. This warrants further investigating 1) the differential importance of neutrophils among demyelinating diseases, 2) the largely unknown effects of current MS therapies on neutrophils, and 3) the potential of neutrophil proteins as clinical biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

DOI10.1016/j.autrev.2017.01.013
Alternate JournalAutoimmun Rev
PubMed ID28161558