Sleep-wake disturbances in hospitalized patients with traumatic brain injury: association with brain trauma but not with an abnormal melatonin circadian rhythm.

TitleSleep-wake disturbances in hospitalized patients with traumatic brain injury: association with brain trauma but not with an abnormal melatonin circadian rhythm.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsDuclos, C, Dumont, M, Paquet, J, Blais, H, Van der Maren, S, Menon, DK, Bernard, F, Gosselin, N
JournalSleep
Date Published2019 Sep 28
ISSN1550-9109
Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To test whether the sleep-wake cycle disruption in patients hospitalized with traumatic brain injury (TBI) (1) is also found in patients with traumatic injuries other than TBI (non-TBI) and (2) is associated with a weaker or abnormal circadian clock signal.METHODS: Forty-two non-mechanically ventilated and non-sedated patients hospitalized for moderate-to-severe TBI were compared to 34 non-TBI patients. They wore wrist actigraphs for 9.4 ± 4.2 days, starting 19.3 ± 12.6 days post-injury. Of these, 17 TBI and 14 non-TBI patients had their urine collected every hour for 25 hours, starting 18.3 ± 12.3 days post-injury. We calculated urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin concentration to obtain total 24-hour excretion, excretion onset, offset, duration, amplitude, and acrophase. Using Student's t-tests, we compared groups on actigraphy (daytime activity ratio, nighttime total sleep time, and fragmentation index) and melatonin variables. We investigated associations between melatonin and actigraphy variables using Pearson's correlations.RESULTS: TBI patients had poorer daytime activity ratio (TBI: 77.5 ± 9.4%; non-TBI: 84.6 ± 6.9%), shorter nighttime total sleep time (TBI: 353.5 ± 96.6 min; non-TBI: 421.2 ± 72.2 min), and higher fragmentation index (TBI: 72.2 ± 30.0; non-TBI: 53.5 ± 23.6) (all p-values < 0.01). A melatonin rhythm was present in both groups, and no group differences were found on melatonin variables. No associations were found between melatonin and actigraphy variables in TBI patients.CONCLUSION: Moderate-to-severe TBI patients have more serious sleep-wake disturbances than non-TBI patients hospitalized in the same environment, suggesting that the brain injury itself alters the sleep-wake cycle. Despite their deregulated 24-hour sleep-wake cycle, TBI patients have a normal circadian clock signal.

DOI10.1093/sleep/zsz191
Alternate JournalSleep
PubMed ID31562742