The language connectome: new pathways, new concepts.

TitleThe language connectome: new pathways, new concepts.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsDick, ASteven, Bernal, B, Tremblay, P
JournalNeuroscientist
Volume20
Issue5
Pagination453-67
Date Published2014 Oct
ISSN1089-4098
KeywordsAnimals, Brain, Connectome, Humans, Language, Models, Neurological, Neural Pathways
Abstract

The field of the neurobiology of language is experiencing a paradigm shift in which the predominant Broca-Wernicke-Geschwind language model is being revised in favor of models that acknowledge that language is processed within a distributed cortical and subcortical system. While it is important to identify the brain regions that are part of this system, it is equally important to establish the anatomical connectivity supporting their functional interactions. The most promising framework moving forward is one in which language is processed via two interacting "streams"--a dorsal and ventral stream--anchored by long association fiber pathways, namely the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and two less well-established pathways, the middle longitudinal fasciculus and extreme capsule. In this article, we review the most up-to-date literature on the anatomical connectivity and function of these pathways. We also review and emphasize the importance of the often overlooked cortico-subcortical connectivity for speech via the "motor stream" and associated fiber systems, including a recently identified cortical association tract, the frontal aslant tract. These pathways anchor the distributed cortical and subcortical systems that implement speech and language in the human brain.

DOI10.1177/1073858413513502
Alternate JournalNeuroscientist
PubMed ID24342910